Archive for May, 2015

Secure Hashing Algorithms SHA-1 and SHA-2

May 15th, 2015 No comments

First implemented by the National Security Agency (NSA) in 1993, the Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA) is used by certification authorities such as Verisign and Thawte to sign certificates and Certificate Revocation Lists. SHA is used to generate unique hash values from files.

This is the SHA-1 hash fingerprint from the website:

root@raspberrypi:/# echo | openssl s_client -connect 2>/dev/null | openssl x509 -fingerprint -noout
SHA1 Fingerprint=EA:D2:F2:79:18:A0:CD:2B:10:3B:12:01:CF:B1:9E:CC:AF:0F:28:0C

SHA versions:

  • SHA0 Obsoleted
  • SHA1 Currently the most widely implemented
  • SHA2 Stronger than SHA-1 due to longer hash (SHA224, SHA256, SHA384 and SHA512)

As part of their SHA-2 migration plan, Microsoft, Google, and Mozilla have announced that they will stop trusting SHA-1 certificates. Google began phasing out trust in SHA-1 certificates in November 2014. Read more…

Categories: Network Design, Security Tags: ,

How to Determine which Process or Application uses a TCP Connection

May 14th, 2015 2 comments

This recipe shows how to determine which process or application uses a TCP connection which you saw listed in your netstat output.  The exampe below is for Linux.  Windows is further down in the post:

In this example, I have a small ARM Linux device being remotely managed via the “Dataplicity” service. To use the service you install a script which runs on startup. It seems that the script sets up an SSH connection from the managed ARM device to the dataplicity server, so that when you login to their Admin portal and choose the “terminal” option, you access the Linux terminal which is already setup.

The netstat output shows a session outbound from the ARM machine ( to the dataplicity server ( on TCP/22 (SSH):

root@raspberrypi:/# netstat -an | grep ‘:443’

the next step is to find which process(es) use the (source) TCP port 46098:

Read more…